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Year after year railway transportation systems are facing increasingly strict demands, such as greater transport capacity, lower life cycle cost, and higher safety.
To meet such demands, future technology will tend toward a change of the train control system to determine the railway system operation framework. This will include single-step brake control (distance-to-stop control) instead of the current speed step control, as well as onboard detection of the train position instead of the current track circuit detection (fixed block). Therefore, a new train control system must be developed with more intelligent subsystems, such as Automatic Train Protection (ATP), Automatic Train Operation (ATO) and Autonomous Train Integration (ATI), organically combining them to closely cooperate with the ground facilities.