Skip to main content


Corporate InformationResearch & Development


Quantum Measurement

Chronology of Major Research Achievements

A. Tonomura, A. Fukukhara, H. Watanabe and T. Komoda, "Optical Reconstruction of Image from Fraunhofer Electron-Hologram," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 7 (1968): 295.
1968Demonstrated the possibility of holography with an electron beam
A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, H. Todokoro and T. Komoda, "Development of a Field Emission Electron Microscope," J. Electron Microsc. 28 (1979): 1-11.
1978Put electron holography to practical use by developing a "coherent" field-emission electron microscope
A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii and K. Mihama, "Direct Observation of Fine Structure of Magnetic Domain Walls by Electron Holography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 44 (1980): 1430-1433.
1980Invented a method of directly observing microscopic magnetic lines of force as electron phase contours.
A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, R. Suzuki, A. Fukuhara, N. Osakabe, H. Umezaki, J. Endo, K. Shinagawa, Y. Sugita and H. Fujiwara, "Observation of Aharonov-Bohm Effect by Electron Holography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48 (1982): 1443-1446.
1980-83Produced evidence for the Aharonov-Bohm effect using transparent toroidal magnets
A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo and N. Osakabe, "Sensitivity-Enhanced Electron-Holographic Interferometry and Thickness-Measurement Applications at Atomic Scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 (1985): 60-62.
1985Developed a method to measure electron phase shifts as precisely as 1/50 of 2π .
  • A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano and H. Yamada, "Evidence for Aharonov-Bohm Effect with Magnetic Field Completely Shielded from Electron Wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 (1986): 792-795.
  • A. Tonomura, "Applications of electron holography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 59 (1987): 637-669.
  • M. Peshkin and A. Tonomura. 1989. The Aharonov-Bohm Effect. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
1986Established the physical reality of gauge fields by producing definitive evidence for the Aharonov-Bohm effect using toroidal magnets covered with superconductors.
  • T. Matsuda, S. Hasegawa, M. Igarashi, T. Kobayashi, M. Naito, H. Kajiyama, J. Endo, N. Osakabe, A. Tonomura and R. Aoki, " Magnetic Field Observation of a Single Flux Quantum by Electron-Holographic Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 (1989): 2519-2522.
  • A. Tonomura, "Electron-holographic interference microscopy," Adv. Phys. 41 (1992): 59-103.
1989Directly observed the magnetic lines of individual vortices penetrating superconductors.
A. Tonomura, J. Endo, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki and H. Ezawa, "Demonstration of Single-Electron Buildup of an Interference Pattern,"Amer. J. Phys. 57 (1989) pp.117-120.
Demonstrated single-electron build-up of an interference pattern.
  • K. Harada, T. Matsuda, J. Bonevich, M. Igarashi, S. Kondo, G. Pozzi, U. Kawabe and A. Tonomura, "Real-time observation of vortex lattices in a superconductor by electron microscopy," Nature 3605 November 1992): 51-53.
  • A. Tonomura. 1993. Electron Holography, Heidelberg: Springer.
  • A. Tonomura. 1999. Electron Holography, 2nd ed. Heidelberg:Springer.
1992Developed a technique for dynamically observing vortices in superconductors.
K. Harada, T. Matsuda, H. Kasai, J. E. Bonevich, T. Yoshida and A. Tonomura, "Vortex Configuration and Dynamics in Bi2Sr1.8 CaCuOx Thin Film by Lorentz Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993): 3371-3374.
1993Determined the regions in magnetic field and temperature where vortices in high-Tc superconductors can exist statically.
T. Matsuda, K. Harada, H. Kasai, O. Kamimura, and A. Tonomura, "Observation of Dynamic Interaction of Vortices with Pinning Centers by Lorentz Microscopy," Science 271 (8 March 1996): 1393-1395.
1996Found "intermittent vortex rivers" near pinning centers.
K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, T. Matsuda, and A. Tonomura, "Direct Observation of Vortex Dynamics in Superconducting Films with Regular Arrays of Defects," Science 274 (15 November 1996): 1167-1169.
1996Elucidated the microscopic mechanism of the peak effect in critical current in superconductors
  • N. Osakabe, H. Kasai, T. Kodama, and A. Tonomura, "Time-Resolved Analysis in Transmission Electron Microscopy and Its Application to the Study of the Dynamics of Vortices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997): 1711-1714.
  • C. Sow, K. Harada, A. Tonomura, G. Crabtree, and D. G. Grier, "Measurement of the Vortex Pair Interaction Potential in a Type-II Superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998): 2693-2696.
1997Determined the vortex-vortex pair potential from the dynamic observation of thermally activated vortex hopping.
A. Tonomura, H. Kasai, O. Kamimura, T. Matsuda, K. Harada, J. Shimoyama, K. Kishio, and K. Kitazawa, "Motion of vortices in superconductors," Nature 397 (28 January 1999): 308-309.
1999Found two different movements of vortices in high-Tc superconductors above and below 25K.
T. Kawasaki, T. Yoshida, T. Matsuda, N. Osakabe, A. Tonomura, I. Matsui, and K. Kitazawa, "Fine crystal lattice fringes observed using a transmission electron microscope with 1-Mev coherent electron waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (2000): 1342-1344.
2000Developed 1MV field-emission electron microscope having the brightest electron beam and the highest lattice resolution.
A. Tonomura, H. Kasai, O. Kamimura, T. matsuda, K. Harada, Y. Nakayama, J. Shimoyama, K. Kishio, T. Hanaguri, K. Kitazawa, M. Sasase and S. Okayasu, "Observation of individual vortices trapped along columnar defects in high-temperature superconductors," Nature 412 (2001): 620-622.
2001Observed the different arrangements of vortex lines trapped and untrapped along tilted columnar defects inside high-Tc superconductors with the 1MV electron microscope
T. Matsuda, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, K. Harada, T. Yoshida, T. Akashi, A. Tonomura, Y. Nakayama, J. Shimoyama, K. Kishio, T. Hanaguri and K. Kitazawa, "Oscillating Rows of Vortices in Superconductors," Science 294 (7 December 2001): 2136-2138.
2002Found the oscillation of a row of vortices reflecting the layered structure of high-Tc superconductors
A. Tonomura, K. Kasai, O. Kamimura, T. Matsuda, K. Harada, T. Yoshida, T. Akashi, J. Shimoyama, K. Kishio, T. Hanaguri, K. Kitazawa, T. Masui, S. Tajima, N. Koshizuka, P.L. Gammel, D. Bishop, M. Sasase and S. Okayasu, "Observation of Structures of Chain Vortices Inside Anisotropic High-Tc Superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002): 237001.
2002Found the formation mechanism of chain vortices in high- Tc superconductors at tilted magnetic fields
  • Page top